Piaget’s Stages of Development (Psychosocial)

Stage 1       0-1              Trust vs Mistrust          
At this stage babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she might grow up with a general mistrust of the world.

Stage 2       2-3              Autonomy vs Shame & Doubt       
As toddlers, children begin to develop independence and start to learn that they can do some things on their own (such as going to the toilet). If a child is not encouraged properly at this age, he or she might develop shame and doubt about their abilities.   
     
Stage 3       4-6              Initiative vs Guilt          
As preschoolers, children continue to develop more independence and start to do things of their own initiative. If a child is not able to take initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks, he or she might develop guilt over their needs and desires.    
            
Stage 4       7-12            Industry vs Inferiority 
Throughout their school years, children continue to develop self-confidence through learning new things. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age, they may develop an inferiority complex.      
        
Stage 5       13-19         Identity vs Role Confusion                  
When they reach the teenage years, children start to care about how they look to others. They start forming their own identity by experimenting with who they are. If a teenager is unable to properly develop an identity at this age, his or her role confusion will probably continue on into adulthood.

Stage 6       20-34         Intimacy vs Isolation   
During early adulthood most people fall in love, get married and start building their own family. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships), they will probably develop feelings of isolation.

Stage 7       35-65         Generativity vs Stagnation             
This is the longest period of a human's life. It is the stage in which people are usually working and contributing to society in some way and perhaps raising their children. If a person does not find proper ways to be productive during this period, they will probably develop feelings of stagnation.

Stage 8       65+             Integrity vs Despair     
As senior citizens, people tend to look back on their lives and think about what they have or have not accomplished. If a person has led a productive life, they will develop a feeling of integrity. If not, they might fall into despair.

 

Kohlberg’s Stages of Development (Moral)

Pre-Conventional Morality
Stage 1       Obedience or Punishment Orientation
This is the stage that all young children start at (and a few adults remain in). Rules are seen as being fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it means avoiding punishment.

Stage 2       Self-Interest Orientation
As children grow older, they begin to see that other people have their own goals and preferences and that often there is room for negotiation. Decisions are made based on the principle of "What's in it for me?" For example, an older child might reason: "If I do what mom or dad wants me to do, they will reward me. Therefore I will do it."

Conventional Morality
Stage 3       Social Conformity Orientation
By adolescence, most individuals have developed to this stage. There is a sense of what "good boys" and "nice girls" do and the emphasis is on living up to social expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships.

Stage 4       Law and Order Orientation
By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one's duty and respecting authority.

Post-Conventional Morality
Stage 5       Social Contract Orientation
At this stage, people understand that there are differing opinions out there on what is right and wrong and that laws are really just a social contract based on majority decision and inevitable compromise. People at this stage sometimes disobey rules if they find them to be inconsistent with their personal values and will also argue for certain laws to be changed if they are no longer "working". Our modern democracies are based on the reasoning of Stage 5.

Stage 6       Universal Ethics Orientation
Few people operate at this stage all the time. It is based on abstract reasoning and the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes. At this stage, people have a principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of what the official laws and rules are.